Notes

1 For consistency, we refer to all education programs as “schools,” even though not all institutions use that label.
2 See Avni 2014b, p. 257; Munro 2016.
3 Avni 2012; Zelkowicz and Finkel 2015; Pomson and Wertheimer 2017.
4 Bekerman 1986; Jakar 1995; Benor, Krasner, and Avni 2016, 2020.
5 According to Pew’s (2013) study of Jewish Americans, 59% report having participated in part-time Jewish education (“other formal Jewish education”), compared to 23% who attended day school or yeshiva; 38% attended overnight Jewish summer camp.
6 This study and its consent procedures were approved by the University of Southern California Institutional Review Board: UP-18-00528.
7 Pomson and Wertheimer 2017; Benor, Krasner, and Avni 2020.
8 See Ivankova and Greer 2015 on the “quant-qual” approach.
9 Readers who wish to see the questionnaires are welcome to contact the authors.
10 According to a report by JDATA (2013), there were 1,848 such schools in 2013.
11 West: AZ, CA, CO, ID, NM, NV, OR, WA, WY; South: AL, FL, GA, KY, LA, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA; Northeast: CT, DC, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT; Midwest: IA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, NE, OH, WI.
12 Jewish density of school location was determined using the state as an (admittedly rough) proxy, based on a cutoff of 1.2% Jews in the state population (statistics from Dashefsky and Sheskin 2017). Dense: AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, DC, FL, GA, IL, MD, MA, MN, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, WA. Sparse: AL, AK, AR, HI, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, ME, MI, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NM, NC, ND, OK, OR, SC, SD, TN, TX (except in Houston and Dallas), UT, VT, VA, WV, WI (except in Madison and Milwaukee), WY.
13 With the help of research assistants, we analyzed the quantitative data statistically using SPSS, and we analyzed the qualitative data interpretively using Dedoose. Multiple coders participated to ensure greater reliability and consistency. Dedoose also allowed for mixed methods analysis, including correlating qualitative codes with independent variables such as denomination and school size.
14 Shohamy 1999; Avni 2014a; Winer, Aron, and Perman 2017.
15 Feuer 2006; Walters 2017.
16 Schachter 2010; Ringvald 2011; Winshall 2011; Moskowitz 2013; Greninger 2019.
17 Avni, Kattan, and Zakai 2012.
18 Zuckermann 2006. On “revernacularization,” rather than “revival,” see Spolsky 2013.
19 Pomson and Wertheimer (2017) distinguish between “Classical Hebrew” and “Modern Hebrew.”
20 Benor, Krasner, and Avni 2020.
21 Spolsky 1986; Avni 2014a; Feuer 2016.
22 Benor, Krasner, and Avni 2020.
23 Asher 1969, 2000.
24 https://www.onwardhebrew.org/; the third author of this report is a co-founder of #OnwardHebrew.
25 Benor 2018; Avineri 2019; Benor and Avineri 2019; Greninger 2019.
26 Aron 2014; Winer, Aron, and Perman 2017; Greninger 2019.
27 E.g., content-based language instruction (Cammarata 2016), curriculum development (Wiggins and McTighe 2005), language assessment (Bailey and Curtis 2015), language for specific purposes (Douglass 2000), language pedagogy (Brown and Lee 2015), task-based language teaching (Ellis 2003), and teaching pragmatics (Taguchi and Roever 2017).
28 Ergas 2017, p. 58. See also Feuer 2016; Avni 2016; and Benor and Avineri 2019.
29 Benor 2018, 2019. See also Benor, Krasner, and Avni 2016.
30 Ahlers 2006, 2017.
31 Avineri 2012.
32 Canagarajah 2013.
33 Benor, Krasner, and Avni 2020.
34 E.g., Creese and Blackledge 2011; Reyes 2016; Brinton, Kagan, and Bauckus 2017; Kagan and Dillon 2017; Dekeyser and Stevens 2018; Kemeh 2018; Seals 2018.
35 Krasner 2011.
36 Krasner 2011, p. 30.
37 Schoenfeld 1987; see also Munro 2016 on tensions between families and synagogue leadership in training for bar/bat mitzvah today.
38 Benor, Krasner, and Avni 2020, p. 107.
39 Aron 1995.

40 Avni 2014a, p. 259.
41 Although we asked about a wide variety of approaches to Hebrew education, we did not ask whether schools use workbooks as a methodology for learning Hebrew. As this may be one of the most common approaches, this would have been useful additional information for the study.
42 Benor, Krasner, and Avni 2016.
43 Identical responses to this question may reflect diverse realities. For example, one school that reports having a moderate amount of HTM might use only sporadic instructions in Hebrew, and another might have adopted the full program, carried out by certified instructors.
44 This finding also contrasts with the prevalence of Israeli Hebrew teachers in Jewish day schools (Pomson and Wertheimer 2017).
45 This sample probably included more Israeli teachers than the national average because it included schools in areas with large Israeli populations like Los Angeles, New York, Boston, and South Florida.
46 The phase 1 survey used the wording “for bar/bat mitzvah preparation” and “beyond bar/bat mitzvah preparation.” We realized after completing phase 1 that the second phrase was ambiguous, so we used modified wording in the phase 2 surveys: “for bar/bat mitzvah preparation” and “for reasons other than bar/bat mitzvah.” We also sent a brief survey with these and a few other revised questions to the school directors of the eight schools participating in the constituent surveys so their questions would be comparable. In our data presentation, the category “school directors” refers to the 519 school directors who responded to the phase 1 survey, and “8 school directors” refers to the school directors who participated in phase 2 and responded to these revised questions.
47 The wording was slightly different on the school directors’ survey: “comprehending Modern Hebrew prose.”
48 The student survey used a different scale (“not at all, a little bit, more than a little bit, a lot”) from that in the school directors’ survey (“not at all, to a small extent, to a moderate extent, to a great extent”). Ideally, we would have data to compare school directors’ goals and evaluations for the students at their exact current phase, but the school director survey asked about goals and evaluations for graduates. These students were mostly nearing the end of their 6th grade year, which is the final year for some schools. Other schools end after 7th grade.
49 Cammarata 2016.
50 Parents’ question about involvement was worded differently: “Has a teacher or administrator asked for your input regarding the way Hebrew is taught at the school?” The options were “Multiple times a year, Once each year, Once every few years, Once, Never, Not sure.” We re-coded these options to compare them with the school directors’ options.
51 The wording was slightly different for parents (“Has a teacher or administrator from [this school] communicated their Hebrew-related goals to parents at the school? If so, how often?”) and for students (“Has a teacher or director from [this school] ever told you about what Hebrew skills they want you to learn? If so, how often?”)
52 Personal communication, David Behrman.
53 Our question to teachers about overall satisfaction cannot be compared to the questions posed to other groups, as it focused on their experience teaching at the school.
54 The evaluation scale combined all goals except recitation of Hebrew prayers by ear/heart and recitation of Hebrew prayers using transliteration because many school directors evaluated their students as succeeding more in these goals than the school directors considered them goals.
55 The alignment scale was determined by subtracting the evaluation scale from a parallel scale combining the extent to which each activity is a goal (also excluding recitation by ear and using transliteration). Because a low raw score on this scale indicates high alignment between goals and perceived success, correlation strength statistics were multiplied by -1, and the ranges were flipped when presented in this report (low raw score = high alignment).
56 A linear regression analysis using the perceived success scale as the dependent variable and contact hours, length of directorship, small groups, and homework as the independent variables (Adjusted R-square = .123) finds similar relative strengths of the variables. Adding denomination and/or percentages of teachers who are Israeli into the model reduces the explanatory power of the model.

57 This finding is marginally significant (Chi-square: p=.043); note the small N for one category: only 15 schools report giving more than a small amount of homework. We do not have enough data on actual parent or student satisfaction to analyze that.
58 Research on foreign- and second-language education has found that games, songs, and other entertaining practices can lower students’ anxiety and sustain their motivation throughout the difficult task of language learning (Wright, Betteridge, and Buckby 1983; Richard-Amato 1995; Engh 2013).
59 Beckett and Miller 2006; Petersen and Nassaji 2016; Beckett and Slater 2020.
60 This paragraph is based on a follow-up email exchange with one school director who responded to the survey.
61 Ostroff 2012, p. 7.
62 Norton Peirce 1995.
63 Dornyei 2009.
64 Avineri 2012.
65 Tomlinson 2014.
66 ACTFL 2012.
67 See similar description in Greninger 2019.
68 Shohamy and Gorter 2008.
69 Gorter 2018.
70 Davis 2018.
71 On Hebrew signage at Jewish summer camps, see Benor, Krasner, and Avni 2020, chapter 6.
72 Avineri 2017b.
73 Jefferson 1987.
74 All names are pseudonyms.
75 See Benor, Krasner, and Avni 2020, chapter 8, for analysis of language policing in Jewish summer camps like Ramah and Massad.
76 Benstein 2019 advocates for metalinguistic conversation about Hebrew grammatical roots as a way of fostering appreciation for Hebrew, especially in educational settings that do not have time to focus on language proficiency.
77 Avineri 2012.
78 Benor, Krasner, and Avni 2020, chapter 5.
79 Benor, Krasner, and Avni 2020, p. 148.
80 Canagarajah 2013.
81 Moore 2004.
82 Pomson and Wertheimer 2017.
83 Avineri 2017b; Baquedano-Lopez 2008; Creese and Blackledge 2011.
84 Cooperrider and Whitney 2010.
85 Avineri 2017a; Bradbury-Huang 2010.
86 Or perhaps some people who use this term see “Hebrew” as a proxy for religiousness or connection to Judaism.
87 Greninger 2015.
88 See Looney and Lusin 2019, p. 5, for discussion of the importance of teacher training.
89 Savage 2015.